Fish in Dying Valley
“Small springs and streams dot the Dying Valley area, one of the arid deserts. These small aquatic ‘islands,’ some not a lot bigger than a bath, are populated by 4 species of a tiny fish, often known as desert pupfish. Greater than 20 distinct populations have been recognized. Every inhabitants is confined to a single, remoted oasis. Some have evidently survived for 1000’s of years in small habitats the place their numbers have by no means exceeded a couple of hundred people. On account of evolutionary divergence the species have distinctive shapes and markings.”
Underground Nuclear Explosions
“Because the Restricted Check Ban Treaty of 1963 the U.S. has carried out 229 underground nuclear checks and the usS.R. at the very least 47. These checks have helped seismologists discover methods of discriminating between underground explosions and earthquakes, the thorny problem on which efforts to border a complete check ban initially foundered in 1963. A current article in Nature describes a way ‘that fully separates a inhabitants of  underground explosions at … check websites … from a inhabitants of  shallow … earthquakes … inside about 15° of those check websites.’ The 27 checks generated seismic indicators whose ‘physique wave’ magnitude ranged from 4.2 to six.2. Physique waves, or P waves, journey by the earth’s mantle and might be recorded extra clearly at distances between 3,000 and 10,000 kilometers from the occasion than at shorter distances. They’re thus nicely suited to detecting clandestine occasions.”
Edison Checks Executives
“When Thomas A. Edison was making an attempt out candidates for govt positions [at his Menlo Park Laboratory in New Jersey], he set earlier than them an inventory of 150 questions, none of which had any direct reference to the work. Many scoffed. Sufficient time has elapsed for the outcomes to have justified this uncommon mode of choice. Edison informed Scientific American, ‘It appeared to me that the very very first thing an govt should have is a wonderful reminiscence. In fact it doesn’t comply with that an individual with a wonderful reminiscence is essentially a wonderful govt. But when he has not the reminiscence, he lacks the primary qualification and nothing else issues.’”
Artificial Speech, Pre-Siri
“The speaking machine of Professor Faber is in Philadelphia. Within the exhibition final night time, phrases of six and eight phrases have been spoken in English, French and German. The voice is a shrill, monotonous and unnatural one, however within the majority of cases startlingly right, acquired by the viewers with applause. The machine consists of a gilded desk, beneath which seems a bellows. Upon the highest a dull face, with clammy eyes, stares at you, and behind it’s organized a mass of wires, strings, delicate picket levers, rubber tubes and pipes. Compressing the bellows forces air by an iron windpipe, and thence into a man-made glottis, from which it passes by a vent representing the human mouth, with movable jaws and rubber tongue. Fourteen levers, when moved in live performance, produce the sound of any desired syllable. A separate lever causes a peal of laughter.”
Warmth Prevents Colds?
“Chills and fever have been attributed for ages to ‘miasm,’ an emanation from the earth so refined that the ablest chemist was not in a position to detect it. However the microscope has found within the miasmatic air a large number of residing issues. Whether or not this life is animal or vegetable is in dispute, but it surely outcomes from heat, moisture and vegetation mixed. To be injurious, it have to be breathed into the lungs, or swallowed into the abdomen. However chilly makes it so heavy that it falls to the earth, and might be neither breathed nor swallowed. Warmth carries the miasm in the direction of the clouds. An hour after dawn till an hour earlier than sundown, as a normal rule, it’s too excessive above our heads to injure us due to the warmth of the climate. To [be] secure in spring and autumn, costume by a cheerful blazing hearth, and take breakfast earlier than going exterior. Come dwelling earlier than sunset, take your supper earlier than its setting, by the identical cheerful blazing fireside, then go and do what you please.”
By the Eighteen Eighties most physicians subscribed to the germ principle of illness, discarding the miasm concept, touted by Hippocrates within the fourth century B.C.